Keynote Title: “MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION FROM THE SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE”
This talk aims to describe, explain and prescribe multicultural education within the framework of systems thinking. The outline can be given in terms of structural components and dynamic attributes of open systems. To begin with the compelling forces for multicultural education are taken as the inputs to the present educational systems. Recognition and appreciation of “other” cultures, enjoyment to be with others are just a few expected outputs of multicultural education. In so far as structural components are concerned social setting is the most salient sub-system of the whole, because it is explicitly involved with the problems and the solutions. Physical settings for multicultural education must be appropriate for collaborative participation of parties involved. Clubs, gymnasiums, and outdoor facilities are apt to be more convenient for social dynamism essential for social inclusion. Almost all cultures are using the same hardware as educational media: TV, PC, GSM and printed materials. The obstacles for multicultural education reside in the subject matter covered in religion, history and social science courses. As to the methods appropriate for multicultural education lecture must be last choice. Interactive, cooperative, game-like experiential group activities seem to be straightforward procedures. Dynamic attributes of multicultural curricula are absolute aligned with the conjugate characteristics of open systems: Integration-differentiation, unity-diversity, stability-flexibility, equifinality-multifinality, etc. As to the methods appropriate for multicultural education lecture must be last choice. Interactive, cooperative, game-like experiential group activities seem to be straightforward procedures. Dynamic attributes of multicultural curricula are absolute aligned with the conjugate characteristics of open systems: Integration-differentiation, unity-diversity, stability-flexibility, equifinality-multifinality, etc. All of these conjugate qualities define the optimal boundaries. Their extremities on either side must be avoided. For instance, extreme integration of social settings implies assimilation. Extreme differentiation of societal groups is the major problem of which multicultural education is supposed to solve.
Bio: Ali Baykal received his BS degree in Physics from Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey in 1970. He obtained his MS and Ph. D. degrees in the field of Curriculum Development and Evaluation from Hacettepe University Ankara in 1973 and 1980 respectively. In 1974 he joined Boğaziçi University, Istanbul. He taught courses and conducted research in different fields of education. He served as the chairman of The Department of Science Education between 1982 and 1997. In 1998 he led the establishment of the Department Computer Education and Educational Technology. Within the years 1998-2002 he became the General Director of the Schools of Terakki Foundation in Istanbul. At the end of 2002 he rejoined Faculty of Education, Boğaziçi University where he served as the Dean of the Faculty between 2005-2010. During the same period he had been a member of the executive council of Turkish UNESCO commission. Since 2013 he is serving as an instructor at Bahçeşehir University. Ali Baykal published in national journals, and submitted papers to international conferences. He developed “general aptitude tests” to be used in personnel selection programs of some financial institutions in Istanbul. He had been the editor-in-chief of the Boğaziçi University Journal of Education several times. His major research areas are systems thinking in curriculum design, measurement and evaluation, computer applications in teaching and assessment, with a particular emphasis on creativity. He periodically explores data relevant to human development indicators, world university rankings and high-stake entrance exams to draw correlational and comparative inferences.
University College London
Editor-in-Chief, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
Keynote Title: “Engaging with Diversity: Trends in educational policies regarding migrant incorporation across Europe“
Abstract: Both established and new immigration states in Europe continue to experience a net influx of people leaving their countries of origin for political or economic reasons. At the same time, anti-immigrant populist political parties have become ever more popular across the continent. Thus, at a time when the successful incorporation of immigrants has become an ever more important issue, there seems to be declining public support for policies conducive for immigrant integration. In this presentation I examine the trends in educational policies addressing growing diversity across a range of old and new immigration states in Europe. I review the scholarly work on immigrant integration and discuss the Koopmans framework, which identifies four ideal-typical policy responses positioned on the dimensions of recognition and participation. I then use data from the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) and from Banting and Kymlicka’s Multiculturalism Policy Index to explore trends in educational policies in the two-dimensional space of the Koopmans framework. I find that there has been a trend towards ‘civic integration’ (Joppke) and towards the ‘culturalisation of citizenship’ (Tonkens and Duyvendak) across the board. This trend can best be described as a move towards participation and away from recognition. It could thus be characterised as a development towards assimilation. Nonetheless I also find a continuation of national particularisms, such as the tradition of laicite in France and of separation in Germany. I further highlight the remarkable change in Great Britain, where traditional ‘laissez faire’-ism has been replaced by an unprecedented interventionism of the central government in the area of civic and political socialization. I briefly discuss the main characteristics of this interventionism, as exemplified by the Fundamental British Values initiative, and discuss whether such interventions are at all effective in promoting support for democratic values and principles.
Bio: During the final years of my Human Geography studies at the University of Amsterdam I developed an interest in nationalism and ethnic conflicts in the post–communist states of Eastern Europe. This interest led me to focus on the relations between the ethnic Ukrainian majority and the Russian minority in Ukraine for my doctoral research. More particularly, I examined the response of the Russian minority to state-led nation-building policies in education. I found that these policies promoted a cultural understanding of the Ukrainian nation, concentrating as they did on language and history as markers distinguishing Ukrainian national identity from that of Russia. The response of the Russian minority appeared to depend heavily on the relative strength of their numbers in the different regions of the country: opposition in places where they made up a near majority; integration in regions where their numbers were small. After my graduation I wanted to do something completely different and started to work at the Province of North Holland as a civic servant in charge of projects aimed at the reduction of CO2 emission. This experience of working for a regional state made me realize fairly quickly however that I was made for academia. I therefore resumed my academic career at the Institute of Education, where in December 2003 I started as a post-doc with an independent research agenda. Publishing from my doctoral research on language policies, history textbooks and understandings of national identity in Ukraine and beyond, I gradually shifted my research interests to themes such as civic values, political socialization and the relation with inequality and social cohesion, inspired by the research of Andy Green and other colleagues at the Institute. I began to examine these issues in a cross-national comparative manner, using the databases of well-known international surveys such as the WVS, EVS, Eurobarometer, ISSP and the IEA Civic Education Study. In 2008 I began exploring the links between school socio-ethnic composition and the civic values of adolescents as part of the research agenda of the LLAKES Research Centre. I found that classroom ethnic diversity is not related in the same way to values such as tolerance and participation in every country. Strikingly, in England White British students expressed more negative views on immigrants the better their ethnic minority classmates performed. I later extended this research to other aspects of the education system such as educational tracking and citizenship education. In 2013 a British Academy Mid-Career Fellowship allowed me to research the link between education and civic values more accurately through the analysis of longitudinal data such as the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study and Next Steps. In several publications emanating from this project we found that tracking only exacerbates inequalities in political participation. Currently, I’m writing a book on this topic together with Bryony Hoskins, a renowned expert on active citizenship. The focus of the book is on identifying features of education systems that help to mitigate social gaps in political engagement among young people. Together with colleagues from the University of Amsterdam I started organizing an annual mini-conference on the social and political role of education. Since 2013 this conference has developed into a genuine travelling circus, having been organised in Amsterdam, London, Örebro (Sweden), and Groningen (Netherlands). Next year (2018) it returns to its home base Amsterdam. Over the years it accumulated a steady following which will ensure its continuity.